"Caixa d'Estalvis i Pensions de Barcelona" compite en terrenos que no "domina"



"Caixa d'Estalvis i Pensions de Barcelona" -conocida en Catalunya como "la caixa", en inglés the box-, se pone en evidencia a través del anacronismo del Director Ejecutivo mostrando su prepotencia con amenazas para arrebatar los dominios lacaixa.cn y la-caixa.cn

Mientras la resolución (PDF) emitida por el tribunal HKIAC de Hong Kong determina que la Entidad Bancaria tiene derecho sobre el nombre de dominio .cn se revoca desde Suiza y no se hace efectiva la transferencia. Los propietarios de los dominios han renovado sus derechos de explotación hasta el 2020. Los expertos dicen estar ante un error de 8 millones de Euros.

Catalanhost.com emite un comunicado -12 horas antes de la fecha anunciada resolución que se produce incomprensiblemente con 10 días de retraso respecto de la fecha anunciada por HKIAC. Catalanhost tramita los datos encriptados exclusivamente al servidor de Honk Kong. Catalanhost declara no haber contactado ni establecido jamás comunicación alguna con la Entidad Bancaria ni para vender el traspaso. Desde entonces transcurren los días y los dominios siguen bajo la ISP que Catalanhost dirige desde Suiza, Liechtenstein, NuevaYork y Barcelona según fuentes de Libertad-Digital.com.

El proyecto virtual http://la-caixa.cn es una estación de enlaces que cruza flujos de tráfico para el intercambio de datos y direccionamiento de visitas entre redes. El control de esos flujos es lo que confiere poder y posiciona progresivamente los contenidos de la red en los listados que se cruzan entre google.cn y google.com cuyos servidores manejan tráfico de visitantes de China hacia los contenidos científicos que edita, publica y produce Catalanhost desde 2001. En la actual fase de desarrollo del sito http://www.la-caixa.cn Google aporta infraestructura para un buscador adaptado que filtra toneladas de cógigo que se mezclan de bases de datos científicas Chinas y servidores de Catalanhost. La palabra más buscada en http://www.la-caixa.cn es curiosamente "la caixa" y en ningún caso aparece ninguna URL de la Entidad que confunde genérico y acrónimo con marca y propiedad privada.

Los masters IESE y ESADE tienen según un portavoz la oportunidad de empezar a proyectar sus ideas de negocio con una amplitud de visión infinita gracias a la red viendo casos como estos. La nefasta previsión de los cargos responsables y la nefasta petición con amenazas ha convertido el SUMARIO LA CAIXA.CN en el error empresarial del año según algunos expertos consultados.

 

Editorial Libertad-Digital.com

 


Dear HKIAC,

Catalanhost wants to show again the respect for the seriousness and to thank the work of HKIAC in the case HKIAC-DCN-0600086.

Protected by the article 19 of the human rights of 1948:

"Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers."

and sheltered by the laws that protect the commercial and scientific interests that Catalanhost and Google Inc. share under contract to date of today in China through the DNS:

http://www.the-box.cn
http://www.la-caixa.cn

Catalanhost announces its appeal to the International and Chinese justice to make public everywhere and through all the media the threats that the enterprise "Caixa d' Estalvis i Pensions of Barcelona" has poured since the 9 May 2006 16:59:54 on Catalanhost to dispute the control of lacaixa.cn and the-caixa. cn, Catalanhost adds itself to all stupor and media impact that will reach this matter.

Catalanhost Team
21:00
16 Febrero
2007 Zürich



Editorial

Best regards
Salutacions
Saludos
Grüße

 


NOTICIAS RELACIONADAS
Viernes, 15 de Septiembre de 2006
http://www.elconfidencialdigital.com

COMENTARIOS

(24/02/2007) 21:42 p.m.)
"El negocio del futuro es ser peligroso". A. N. Whitehead.

(15/09/2006) 10:52 p.m.)
Los dominios siempre salen caros, querer dominar se exponen a ser dominados y asi le pasa a nuestros amigos de "la Caixa". Van de listos por el mundo creyendo que son el poder factico Mundial y solamente dominan nuestras fronteras y aun asi se les escapa de las manos. Les es muy facil extorsionar a sus clientes, pero aqui les han extorsionado a ellos... Que aprendan, recetar no es tomar Comprar con el dinero de otros les complace, pero cuando les tocan el suyo propio ... hay Señor, esto es otra cosa. Para los chinos La Pela tambien es la pela... Saludos.

(15/09/2006) 03:31 p.m.)
Aunque esto parece una coCHINAda. Ya no podemos engañar a la gente como a chinos. Han aprendido, y su crecimiento que antes era como una chinita en el pie, es ahora una roca en el camino de europa. La Caixa tiene un problema, porque mientras compraba con sus tiburones opas a bajo precio con el apoyo de Montilla. Los chinos de la sopa de tiburón le dan la puntilla a la Caixa, sin el apoyo del gobierno... como decía Fumanchú : "Tinc tanta sang que a les cinc tinc son"

(15/09/2006) 11:04 a.m.)
Estoy de acuerdo con el Chino. Mi empresa ha tenido que pagar y mucho, para disponer de dominios de la firma en otros paises. Pues eso. QUE PAGEN. ¿No es este un mercado global y libre?

 


HISTORIAL EMAILS

 

Lunes, 15 de mayo de 2006 12:33
Muy señores nuestros,

A través de la información que proporciona la consulta .whois., se ha tenido conocimiento de que su organización figura como titular del nombre de dominio (.registrant.) LACAIXA.CN. Dicho nombre de dominio contiene el nombre y signo distintivo de esta Entidad.

La Caixa d.Estalvis i Pensions de Barcelona .la Caixa., es legítima titular del nombre comercial .la Caixa., de naturaleza notoria y renombrada, el cual identifica a la entidad en el tráfico mercantil en el territorio español, distinguiéndola de las demás empresas y entidades que desarrollan actividades idénticas o similares. También es titular de la marca internacional para la República Popular China núm. 724.947, registrada para diferentes actividades, entre las que figuran los servicios financieros.

Asimismo, el nombre .la Caixa., está registrado como marca internacional y territorialmente, en más de 40 países del mundo, tanto como marca o como nombre comercial, entre los cuales figuran todos los países de la Unión Europea.

.la Caixa., en ningún momento ha autorizado la utilización de su denominación o signo distintivo para el registro y/o utilización del nombre del dominio antes citado, por lo que dicha utilización puede constituir una vulneración de la Directiva del Consejo 89/104/CEE, relativa a la aproximación de las legislaciones de los Estados miembros en materia de marcas y de la Ley española 17/2001 de 7 de diciembre de Marcas. Conforme a las mencionadas disposiciones legales, el titular de la marca o nombre comercial, ostenta el derecho exclusivo a utilizar los mismos, en el tráfico económico y en consecuencia, ostenta también el derecho a prohibir que terceros sin su consentimiento, puedan utilizar cualquier otro signo idéntico o semejante, incluso en redes de comunicación telemáticas y como nombre de dominio.

Por consiguiente, le requerimos a usted, como titular del nombre de dominio LACAIXA.CN que autorice, en el plazo de cinco días a contar desde la recepción de la presente, la transferencia del citado nombre de dominio a nuestro favor. A tal efecto le rogamos se sirva firmar el documento que se adjunta al presente mensaje con el fin de autorizar la transferencia del nombre de dominio y remitirlo por correo a nuestra dirección con el fin de tramitarlo ante las entidades de registro correspondientes.

Caixa d'Estalvis i Pensions de Barcelona, "la Caixa"
Asesoría Jurídica
Avenida Diagonal 621-629 T. I pl.16
08028 Barcelona (Spain)

De no acceder a nuestras peticiones, esta Entidad se verá obligada a entablar cuantas acciones de tipo judicial o extrajudicial fueran necesarias para la recuperación del nombre de dominio.

Atentamente,

Sebastián Sastre
Director Ejecutivo de la Asesoría Jurídica
Caixa d'Estalvis i Pensions de Barcelona "la Caixa"
Diagonal 621-629
08028 Barcelona
tel. 934047149
fax 934046255
e-mail: ssastre@lacaixa.es


[ENGLISH TRANSLATION]


Dear Sir/ Madam,

We have had knowledge, through the information provided by the WHOIS database that can be found at the URL http ://www.uwhois.com, that you are the current registrant of the following domain name: LACAIXA.CN, which contains the name and sign of this lending institution.

Caixa d'Estalvis i Pensions de Barcelona "la Caixa", is the business name's lawful holder, of well-known and famous nature, which identifies the institution in the Spanish market, being distinguished from other business that may develop the same or similar activities. Also, .la Caixa. is the owner o the international trademark with the same name, number 724.947, registered in People.s Republic of China for different activities,

Likewise the name of "la Caixa" is registered as an international trade mark, and also, territorially, in over 40 countries in the world, both trade mark or business name; within these countries there are all the European Union countries.

"la Caixa" has never authorized the use of its trade name or sign to become a part of the domain name above-mentioned, therefore its use may break the Council Directive 89/104/EEC of 21 December 1988 to approximate
the laws of the Member States relating to trade marks and the Spanish Act 17/2001 of 7th December on trade marks. In accordance with this regulation, a trade mark or business name's holder has the exclusive right to use them in the market and therefore it also holds the right to forbid the use of any other identical or similar sign by third parties without its authorization, even in telematic communications networks as a domain name.

Therefore, we request you, as the current registrant of the domain name:

LACAIXA.CN, to authorize the transfer of this domain name to Caixa d'Estalvis i Pensions de Barcelona "la Caixa", within 5 calendar days from the day you receive this letter. To this end, we ask you to sign and complete the attached document and send it back to us to the following address in order to proceed with the transfer before the register institutions:

Caixa d'Estalvis i Pensions de Barcelona, "la Caixa"
Legal Department
Avenida Diagonal 621-629 T. I pl.16
08028 Barcelona (Spain)

If you do not accept our request, this institution will be obliged to take the legal or out-of-court actions that might be necessary to the recovery of the domain name.

Yours faithfully,

Sebastián Sastre
Executive Director of the Legal Department
Caixa d'Estalvis i Pensions de Barcelona "la Caixa" Diagonal 621-629
08028 Barcelona (Spain)
Phone: 934047149
Fax: 934046255
e-mail: ssastre@lacaixa.es

(See attached file: Transfert document (SP-EN).doc)


P.D.:La presente comunicación se ha enviado por correo electrónico puesto que en el sitio web de ustedes, sito en la dirección URL http://catalanhost.com no figuran datos relativos a su denominación social ni domicilio, tal como es preceptivo según la Ley 34/2002, de 11 de junio, de Servicios de la Sociedad de la Información y de Comercio electrónico.

 

DOCUMENTO ADJUNTO

D._________________, actuando en representación de (CATALANHOST.COM), con domicilio social en ________________________, titular del nombre de dominio LACAIXA.CN de Internet, según consta en la consulta “whois”, autoriza la transferencia del citado nombre a la Caixa d’Estalvis i Pensions de Barcelona “la Caixa”, renunciando así a cualquier derecho sobre el mismo. Asimismo, se compromete a colaborar con la entidad de registro del citado nombre de dominio (JOKER.COM) y con el CINIC (China Internet Network Information Center) en cuantas acciones y gestiones le sean requeridas por su parte o por las demás entidades participantes en el sistema de registro de nombres de dominio para llevar a cabo la transferencia efectiva del citado nombre de dominio a favor de “la Caixa”.

Mr._________________ , representing (CATALANHOST.COM), having the following address:________________________ , as de current registrant of the internet domain name: LACAIXA.CN, according to the information provided by the WHOIS database, AUTHORIZES the transfer of the domain name above-mentioned to Caixa d’Estalvis i Pensions de Barcelona, (from now on “la Caixa”), doing an abandonment of any right concerning this domain name. To this end and in the even of being necessary for the transfer, he indicates below the keys of access and use. Likewise, he undertakes to collaborate with the registrar of this domain name (JOKER.COM) and the CINIC (China Internet Network Information Center), on any action, measures or steps that might be required in order to transfer this domain name to “la Caixa”.


Claves / Keys:[…]

 


[Firma / Signature]

 

 


Hong Kong International Arbitration Centre

Statement of Complaint Transmission Cover

This Complaint is made against you (the Company) as defendant at the Hong Kong International Arbitration Centre ("HKIAC"), a domain name dispute resolution service provider authorized by China Internet Network Information Center ("CNNIC"), in accordance with the CNNIC Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the "CNNIC DRP") issued by CNNIC on 17 March 2006.

The CNNIC DRP has been automatically incorporated as part of the domain name registration agreement between you (the Company) and the domain name registrar. Pursuant to the CNNIC DRP, should any third party ("Complainant") file with HKIAC a complaint in respect of a domain name registered under you (the company), you (the company) shall be obliged to take part in the administrative proceedings. The letter of complaint attached to this complaint transmission cover sheet contains the name of the Complainant, contact details and the domain name in dispute.

You (the Company) are not required to make any response at this stage. After HKIAC has completed its preliminary examination of the statement of complaint filed by the Complainant and is satisfied it has complied with the formal requirements on statement of complaints under the CNNIC DRP and CNNIC DRP Rules and after payments the Complainant is required to make have been received, HKIAC will send/transmit to you (the Company) a proceedings commencement notice and a copy of the confirmed statement of complaint. According to the requirements of the CNNIC DRP Rules, you (the Company) shall submit a response to the complaint of the Complainant within 20 days from the formal commencement of the proceedings. If required, you (the company) may appoint a lawyer to represent you in the proceedings.

You may view the CNNIC DRP, CNNIC DRP Rules and the Supplemental Rules and other information concerning domain name dispute resolution on HKIAC's website at www.hkiac.org. Should any question arise, you may also directly contact HKIAC for copies of the said materials.

By filing a complaint with HKIAC using this form of complaint, the Complainant confirms that it shall comply with and be bound by the relevant provisions under the CNNIC DRP, CNNIC DRP Rules and the Supplemental Rules.

Barcelona October 26th, 2006

Hong Kong International Arbitration Centre

Complaint in accordance with the
CNNIC Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy

COMPLAINANT:

CAIXA D’ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA (“LA CAIXA”)
Av. Diagonal 621-629, 08028 Barcelona (SPAIN)
Phone: + 34 93 404 73 58
Fax + 34 93 404 62 55
Lucía Palacín Prieto
lpalacin@lacaixa.es
Jordi Kohn Espinilla
jordi.j.kohn@lacaixa.es

RESPONDENT:

CATALANHOST.COM
Mareestrasse 29
9490 Vaduz
Liechtestein
+371.6563920
domains@catalanhost.com

DISPUTED DOMAIN NAMES:

LACAIXA.CN
LA-CAIXA.CN

I. Introduction

1. This complaint shall be decided in accordance with the provisions under the CNNIC Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy ("CNNIC DRP") and the Rules for CNNIC Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy ("CNNIC DRP Rules") issued by the China Internet Network Information Center ("CNNIC") that became effective on March 17, 2006, and the HKIAC Supplemental Rules for CNNIC DRP and CNNIC DRP Rules, issued by the Hong Kong International Arbitration Centre, that became effective on September 30, 2002.

II. Parties

(I) Complainant

2. CAIXA D’ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA (“LA CAIXA”)

CAIXA D’ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA is an entity formed by the merger in 1990 of Caja de Pensiones para la Vejez y de Ahorros de Cataluña y Baleares (founded in 1904) and Caja de Ahorros y Monte de Piedad de Barcelona (founded in 1844).

It is registered under number 1 in the Register of Catalan Savings Banks of the Directorate-General of Financial Policy of the Department of Economy and Finance of the Catalonia Autonomous Community Government (“Generalitat of Catalonia”).

On November 16, 1990, it was entered under number 3003 in the Barcelona Mercantile Register, in volume 20.397, page 1, sheet B-5614, first entry. It is registered with code number 2100 in the Bank of Spain’s Special Register of General Savings Banks.

“LA CAIXA” is presently the leading Spanish savings bank. It is also ranked third in the European savings bank sector, with 9.6 million clients. The “LA CAIXA” Group manages a total of 169,470 million euros in client resources. It has a commercial network throughout Spain which at the end of 2005 included 5,053 branches staffed by 25,254 employees.

The symbol of “LA CAIXA” was created by the renowned international artist Joan Miró. It consists of an irregular 5-pointed blue star with two rounded shapes of different sizes –the smaller one is yellow, and the larger one is red– with the name “LA CAIXA” appearing under. Since they appear frequently on the streets and in advertising, the “LA CAIXA” star and the “LA CAIXA” name are very well-known throughout Spanish territory.

As evidence of its financial soundness and its presence in Spanish territory, a copy of the 2005 Annual Report, which may also be obtained on the http://www.lacaixa.es Web site, has been attached hereto as DOCUMENT 1.

LA CAIXA has been a pioneering company in the Internet banking sector in our country. It offers an extensive products and services portal that can be accessed on Web sites such as: http://www.lacaixa.com, http://www.lacaixa.es, http://www.lacaixa.net and http://www.lacaixa.org. Electronic banking services are also offered through the “Línea Abierta” or “Línia Oberta” [Open Line] links which can be accessed from the “la Caixa” portal or directly on the http://www.lineaabierta.com and http://www.liniaoberta.com Web sites.

At this time, thanks to “LA CAIXA”´s advanced ATM technology, the complainant has approximately 7,200 ATM terminals available. This makes it the leading banking services entity as regards number of ATM terminals, and also the leading payment network in Spain.

LA CAIXA is an entity whose company name is well-known on the market, as demonstrated by its frequent appearance in newspaper articles. A copy of several newspaper articles related to the LA CAIXA company name are attached hereto as DOCUMENT 2. These articles have been printed in well- known Spanish and foreign newspapers, and in all cases the entity is identified by the “La Caixa” name.

As a result of introduction of the entity throughout Spanish territory and its position in the European financial ranking, as well as its participation in socio-cultural and charitable activities, it is impossible to imagine that its renown on the market has gone unnoticed.

“la Caixa” is presently based in France and Andorra through its subsidiaries CAIXABANK FRANCE and CAIXABANK, S.A.

As proof of LA CAIXA’s renown, copies of the results of a search on the http://www.google.com, http://www.yahoo.com/, http://www.altavista.com Web sites are attached hereto as DOCUMENTS 3, 4 and 5. These results demonstrate that when the term “LA CAIXA” is entered in the search engine, most of the results which appear refer to the complainant.

In WIPO Case No. D2000-0647, Societé Le Monde interactif vs. Monsieur Elphège Frèmy, the panelist indicates in his decision that “if the principal search engines (Yahoo, Alta Vista, Lycos) show the “Le Monde” newspaper Web site in the first place on the list of search results, this constitutes proof of its implementation on the international level and on the Internet.”

To this extent, it can be stated that if a large number of references to the “la Caixa” entity can be found on the most frequently used search engines, this shows that it is clearly a recognized and renowned trademark. (Referent to the above, see WIPO arbitration resolution D2000-1402).

The above demonstrates that the complainant is known as “la Caixa” in Spain as well as internationally, and that it is famous and renowned.

3. Contact details of the Complainant:

(Lucía Palacín)
Av. Diagonal 621-629, 08028 Barcelona (SPAIN)
Phone: + 34 93 404 73 58
Fax + 34 93 404 62 55
E.mail: lpalacin@lacaixa.es

4. Authorized representative of the Complainant in the proceedings:

Jordi Kohn
CAIXA D’ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA (“LA CAIXA”)
Av. Diagonal 621-629, 08028 Barcelona (SPAIN)
Phone: + 34 93 404 73 59
Fax + 34 93 404 62 55
E.mail: jordi.j.kohn@lacaixa.es

5. Preferred method of communication with the Complainant in these proceedings:

All electronic communications should be addressed to the lawyer representing the complainant, Mr. Jordi Kohn, at the E-mail address jordi.j.kohn@lacaixa.es. Hard copies delivered by post should be addressed to Caixa d’Estalvis i Pensions de Barcelona “la Caixa”, Av. Diagonal 621-629, 08028 Barcelona (Spain).


(II) Respondent


6. The complaint is directed against CATALANHOST.COM. The e-mail address for CATALANHOST.COM appears in the CNNIC WHOIS database, as shown in the search carried out in this database and submitted with this complaint as DOCUMENT 6.

domains@catalanhost.com


7.According to the WHOIS database, the CATALANHOST.COM domain name is registered by CATALANHOST.
Mareestrasse 29,
Vaduz (Lichtenstein).

This query also indicates the same contact e-mail as shown in the searches carried out in this database, submitted with this complaint as DOCUMENT 7.

Language of the Proceedings
According to article 8 of the Rules:
"Unless otherwise agreed by the Parties or determined in exceptional cases by the Panel, the language of the domain name dispute resolution proceedings shall be Chinese. The Panel may order that any documents submitted in languages other than Chinese be wholly or partially translated into Chinese."
In this case, the disputed domain name was registered using the Roman alphabet. Both parties communicate in English and both parties reside outside of the People’s Republic of China. The Respondent, by means of his representative, who resides in Indianapolis (USA), has no difficulty writing extensively in English (see 12.3).
This is an exceptional case in which the language of the proceedings shall be English rather than Chinese (see HKIAC Case No. DCN 300006 Salvatore Ferragano Italia v. Kotobi Group).

III. Registrar

8.The following domain names are the subject of dispute in this case:

LACAIXA.CN
LA-CAIXA.CN

9. The registrar of the domain names is CSL Computer Service (d.b.a.), Joker.com. The contact details for the registrar of the disputed domain name are as indicated in the contact details on the JOKER.COM Web site:

CSL Computer Service (d.b.a. Joker.com)
EIS AG
Baarerstrasse 8
Po Box 458
CH-6300 Zug
Switzerland
Fax: +41 41 758 05 86

Joker.com is provided byCSL Computer Service Langenbach GmbH
Hansaallee 191-193
40549 Düsseldorf
Germany
Fax: +49 211 867 67 10

IV. Jurisdiction

10. The dispute in this case is within the scope of jurisdiction of the CNNIC DRP, and the panel has competent jurisdiction to decide on the disputed matter. The CNNIC DRP have been incorporated into and become a part of the domain name registration agreement whereby the disputed domain name is registered. A copy of the CNNIC DRP which is applicable for the disputed domain name is attached hereto as DOCUMENT 8.

11. Pursuant to the CNNIC DRP, the Respondent is obliged to take part in these proceedings, because:

(1) The disputed domain name is identical to or confusingly similar to the Complainant's name or the mark in which the Complainant has civil rights and interests;

(2) The disputed domain name holder has no legitimate right or interest over the domain name or the major part of the domain name;

(3) The disputed domain name holder has registered or is using the disputed domain name in bad faith.

V. Facts and Reasons

12. This complaint is made on the following grounds:

The LACAIXA.CN and LA-CAIXA.CN domain names registered by the respondent are confusingly similar to the trademarks registered by the complainant, as demonstrated by the search carried out on May 9, 2006 in the CNNIC WHOIS data base, attached hereto as DOCUMENT 6. This search showed that the domain names appearing at that time were registered with the name of the respondent.

Our client undeniably has sounder rights, as we shall prove based on the following allegations:

12.1. THE DISPUTED DOMAIN NAMES, LACAIXA.CN AND LA-CAIXA.CN, ARE IDENTICAL TO THE LA CAIXA REGISTERED TRADEMARK AND OTHER MARKS

The complainant “la Caixa” is holder of the LA CAIXA registered trademark and other marks .

“LA CAIXA” TRADEMARK:

The complainant is owner of the “LA CAIXA” trademark in Mexico and Andorra, as demonstrated by the certificate issued by the Mexican Institute of Industrial Property, and the certificate issued by the Trademark Office of the Principality of Andorra, both of which are attached hereto as DOCUMENT 9 and DOCUMENT 10.

As indicated, the complainant, holds the “LA CAIXA” trademark in Andorra, number 3.008 for classes 16, 35, 36 and 38, registered on January 24, 1997, which is prior to the date of registration of the domain name . The complainant also holds the “LA CAIXA” trademark in Mexico, number 364.159 for classes 35 and 36, which was registered on May 24, 1988, a date also prior to registration of the domain names.

The complainant also holds the composite “LA CAIXA” trademark registered with the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office on November 14, 1986. The certificate granting the composite trademark 1.168.636 is attached hereto as DOCUMENT 11. The search conducted on the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office Web site in which this trademark is shown to be active is attached as DOCUMENT 12. An application for registration of the same company name and graphic design as a Community trademark has also been submitted previously in Chile. The search conducted on the Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (OHIM) Web site, which shows the status of the application, is attached hereto as DOCUMENT 13.

As mentioned at the beginning of this complaint, the “la Caixa” entity has acquired prestige and renown, and is recognized as such. The article “la” has been added. This gives it singularity, while other entities must always identify themselves with their complete company name. Therefore, any name which includes the term “la Caixa” evokes the Catalan bank CAIXA D’ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA in the mind of the consumer.

Therefore, taking into account the fact that this name has been used in the sector for over 25 years; its volume and geographic scope, with over 5,000 branches distributed throughout Spain; the prestige it has acquired on the Spanish market; as well as the general public’s awareness of the mark, there is no doubt as to the nature of the well-known “LA CAIXA” mark.

"la Caixa" recently opened its first branch office in the People’s Republic of China, in the city of Beijing.

Moreover, the complainant is also the holder of many other marks in which the name “LA CAIXA” appears as a distinctive element. These marks are registered in Spain as well as in 49 other countries throughout the world, either in the countries themselves or as an international trademark.

OTHER MARKS

The complainant not only holds registration of the trademarks mentioned in the previous sections of this document, but also holds a large number of similar registered trademarks. All of them have a common characteristic, which is that they include the term “la Caixa” as a distinctive element (see DOCUMENT 14).

As a result, by virtue of ownership of the “LA CAIXA” trademark the holder, in this case the complainant, is entitled to exclusive use of the aforementioned name to identify its products and services in commercial trade on the Internet, to prevent third parties from using it without authorization, and even to prevent them from using it to identify products or services which could cause confusion.

By virtue of the provisions of article 34 of Spanish Trademark Law, registration of a mark grants the holder the right to exclusive use in commerce. Therefore, use of the LACAIXA.CN and LA-CAIXA.CN names on the Internet by the respondent constitutes intentional misappropriation of the rights which the mark grants to its holder since we are dealing with a sign which, because it is identical or confusingly similar to the trademarks previously registered by the complainant, may cause confusion by the general public.

It is evident that well-known marks receive special protection in Spain and the European Union. This is the case of the “LA CAIXA” mark since, as demonstrated in this complaint, this name is a mark that is well-known not only in the sector, but also among the general public. Therefore, its protection from third parties acting in bad faith must be reinforced.

All of the marks named in this document were registered before the disputed domain name. Based on all that has been mentioned up to this point, the exclusive rights to the LACAIXA.CN. and LA-CAIXA.CN domain names held by the complainant CAIXA D’ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA (“LA CAIXA”) are unquestionable.

Although the word “caixa" with the article “la” means "the box" in Catalan, the term "la Caixa" has been used for a very long time. It has become disassociated from the literal meaning and has become a specific, distinct term used to identify the business that has a special connection to the complainant. As proof of this, it is sufficient to cite the decision of HKIAC Case No. DCN-0300008, Hugo Boss AG vs Wenzhou Lucheng District Shangshu Sunbird Department Store and Zhao Ke Jian as reference.

Finally, we would like to add that any contention that the respondent may make in its response referring to the generic character of the “LA CAIXA” name would have absolutely no relevance in this proceeding.

As proof of this it is sufficient to cite the following World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) decisions in which the disputed names included generic names as reference:

In case D2000-0012, Stella D’oro Biscuit Co., Inc vs. The Patron Group, Inc. the panelist stated: “the fact that Stella D’oro has a discrete and identifiable meaning in Spanish, as Stella D’oro’s trademark registrations demonstrate, does not detract from the identity of the domain name in issue with the Stella D’oro trademark”.

In case D2000-0143, Raimat, S.A. vs. Antonio Casals, the panelist states: “the respondent’s allegation that Raimat is a geographic identifier or the name of a municipality is irrelevant in this proceeding”.

In case D2000-0647, Societé Le Monde Interactif vs. Monsieur Elphège Frémy, regarding the use of the generic term “Le Monde” to designate a common product of the company Societé Le Monde Interactive, its well-known newspaper, the panelist states that a company may conduct a commercial activity which grants such distinctiveness to a generic expression that this leads to a material evocation of it. Therefore, a generic element may have a distinctive character by virtue of its renown.

To this extent the decisions in WIPO cases D2000-0604, Editora Globo, S.A. vs. Mundo on line Net; D2000-0166, Plaza Operating Partners, Ltd. vs. Pop Data Technologies, Inc. and Joseph Pillus; D2000-0162, Cortefiel, S.A. vs. The Gallery Group; D2000-0007, Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc. vs. Lauren Raymond; D2000-0019, Which? Limited vs. James Halliday; D2000-0065, Surfdog, Inc. vs. Dr. Charles Cooper; D2000-0073, The Hamlet Group, Inc. vs. James Lansford; D2000-0141, Cortefiel, S.A. vs. Javier García Quintas; D2000-0140, Cortefiel, S.A. vs. Miguel García Quintas; D2000-0201, Guillermo J. Fesser Pérez de Petinto y Juan L. Cano Ambros vs. R&t y Tino Hernández; D2000-0238, Gestevision Telecinco, S.A. y Estudios Telecinco, S.A. vs. Silher Investments Group, S.L., D2000-0362, Oxygen Media, LLC vs. Primary Source; D2000-0384, Easyjet Airline Company Limited vs. Mahmoud Panjehshahi; D2000-0751, Port Aventura, S.A. vs. Miguel García Quintas; D2000-0823, El Rincón del Vago, S.L. et. al. vs. Nettika, S.L.; D2000-0839, Gruner+Jahr Printing & Publishing Co. vs. Luis Tobena; D2000-0969, General Optica, S.A. vs. Alfredo Labadía Pardo; D2000-0970, General Optica, S.A. vs. RMC, S.L.; and D2000-0910, Port Aventura, S.A. vs. Próspero Morán are also illustrative.

Based on the criteria repeatedly pointed out by the panelists in the aforementioned decisions, we may state that, due to its special renown, the “LA CAIXA” name has a distinctive character that separates it from any possible generic evocation that may be associated with it.

Furthermore, the complainant holds the following generic domain names: LACAIXA.COM, LACAIXA.NET, LACAIXA.ORG, LACAIXA.BIZ and LACAIXA.INFO, as well as the territorial domain names: LACAIXA.ES (Spain), LA CAIXA.FR (France), LACAIXA.IT (Italian), LACAIXA.LU (Luxembourg), LACAIXA.CO.UK and LACAIXA.ORG.UK (United Kingdom), LACAIXA.LI (Liechtenstein), LACAIXA.BE (Belgium), LACAIXA.DK (Denmark), LACAIXA.CH (Switzerland), LACAIXA.TO (Tonga), LACAIXA.CAT (Catalonia) and LACAIXA.EU (European Union). “la Caixa” has also registered LACAIXA.NET.CN in China.

12.2. THE HOLDER OF THE DISPUTED DOMAIN NAME HAS NO LEGITIMATE RIGHT TO OR INTEREST IN THE DOMAIN NAME

According to the information obtained in the CNNIC WHOIS database, the disputed domain name was registered by Catalanhost.com.

The current holder of the domain name disputed in this complaint does not hold the “LA CAIXA” registered trademark, nor any other trademark which is similar to the aforementioned, nor any license or other type of authorization for use granted by the legitimate holders of such trademarks. Therefore, the respondent does not have any legitimate right to or interest in use of the term “LACAIXA” as a domain name nor, consequently, to identify itself by use of this term.

As the panel can observe, the respondent has not used the domain name in connection with any bona fide offering of goods or services. At present, the LACAIXA.CN Web site does not have any contents. It only offers the home page with different links to searches using the Google search engine. Therefore, the respondent is only using the domain name to operate a Web site featuring links to some commercial Web sites through Google.

The contents of the Google search engine already show that the respondent does not seek to present a Web site with its own contents, but rather that it is only attempting to give the impression that it is using the domain name.

Furthermore, the respondent has not yet acted this way. The next case can be seen in the National Arbitration Forum decision, Claim No. FA0602000637920 The University of Houston System vs. Salvia Corporation.

It is evident that the respondent cannot argue that it is known by the domain name since there is no connection between the meaning of the domain name in Catalan and the kind of services offered on the site mentioned. There is no reason for the respondent to choose this domain name, since “LA CAIXA” is not a common name, and even less so in China.

12.3. THE HOLDER OF THE DISPUTED DOMAIN NAME HAS REGISTERED OR IS USING THE DISPUTED DOMAIN NAME IN BAD FAITH

The complainant is convinced that the domain names which are the subject of this complaint were registered in bad faith. The respondent has not used the disputed domain name commercially at any time other than offering links to Web sites through the Google search engine. This fact and the evidence stated below demonstrate a lack of legitimate interest regarding this domain name, and suggest that it was registered due to evident bad faith.

The literal form of the LACAIXA.CN and LA-CAIXA.CN domain names has nothing to do with the data provided by the holder when registering this domain name. Therefore, the sole reason for carrying out such registration could only have been to later sell the domain name to the party that actually had legitimate interests in it, and to benefit from doing so.

As has already been clearly demonstrated, the complainant is a well-known entity in Spain and is ranked third in the European savings bank sector. It has been shown that the aforementioned trademark was registered long before the respondent registered the disputed domain name, and also that the complainant is a prestigious, well-known company in Spain.

The respondent does not have and does not presume to have any legitimate interest in maintaining this domain name other than to give the impression on its Web site that it is legitimate to use the LACAIXA.CN and LA-CAIXA.CN domain names, for the following reasons:

The respondent has Web sites called “The Box of Sciences” and “La caixa de ciències” under the LACAIXA.CN and LA-CAIXA.CN domain names. However, the respondent does not have any trademark or business name with these names.

The respondent does not offer products or services. It does not have any contents on its Web sites except for some science-related hyperlinks and the Google search engine.

Also, the respondent has not registered the names of the Web sites, for example “Theboxofsciences” or “lacaixadeciencies”, or “thebox”. The respondent has only registered the “LA CAIXA” trademark.

On May 11, 2006 an e-mail was sent to the e-mail address provided to the registry by the registrant. In this communication an attempt was made to inform the respondent that CAIXA D’ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA (“LA CAIXA”) is a bank that holds several national and international registered trademarks, and that it has not provided any authorization whatsoever to use the bank’s distinctive signs as a domain name. It also requested collaboration to transfer this domain name without any charges. A copy of the document sent by e-mail is attached hereto as DOCUMENT 15.

This statement could not be sent by post since, as suspected, the address of the WHOIS database was not accurate. This address in Vaduz refers to a hotel, not a company. See DOCUMENT 16 attached.

The aforementioned fact appears to suggest that the respondent used incomplete data in the registration agreement to conceal his true identity or to make it difficult to be able to contact him. This implies bad faith and is an evident breach of the registration agreement which all registering agents are bound to. This agreement includes a clause in which the registrant is bound to guarantee that the information included in the registration form is true, current, complete, and accurate.

Furthermore, in DOCUMENT 17 attached there is an e-mail in which the registrant’s representative requests that “la Caixa” provide the sum of 3 million euros for sale of the LACAIXA.CN domain name. This is evidence of the bad faith of the respondent. In this e-mail the registrant’s representative uses the English language. The representative is an American lawyer who resides in Indianapolis.

Subsequently, the complainant received two more communications in which the respondent’s representative insists on negotiating a price for transferring the current domain name to “la Caixa”. See DOCUMENTS 18 and 19.

It has been shown that the aforementioned trademarks were registered a long time before the respondent registered the disputed domain name, and also that the complainant is a prestigious, well-known entity in Spain. Therefore, when the respondent registered this domain name, he was aware of the fact that he was taking over a name which, from a commercial point of view, is a key point for the complainant.

In his decision on WIPO Case No. D2002-0506, Caja de Ahorros del Mediterráneo vs. Antonio Acuña Racero, the panelist found the following: “Given the referred to renown, is it clear that the Respondent registered the domain name fully aware that he was infringing the rights of the Complainant, and also aware that use of the domain could cause confusion between Internet users as to the real identity of the holder of the domain […] On the other hand, the fact that the Complainant has not registered as a domain a name which coincides with that of his marks, in its full version (although, the Complainant has since applied to register the syncopated version “cam” as a first level domain) does not lead us to believe that it would permit or tolerate the infringement of its rights in general and particularly with regard to the registration and use of the disputes domain. Obviously, the mere acquisition of a domain name does not in itself accredit the Respondent’s legitimate interest (the findings of the panel were also similar in its decisions in WIPO Case No. D2000-0003 “Telstra Corporation Limited vs. Nuclear Marshmallows”; WIPO Case No. D2001-0001, “City of Hamina vs. Paragon International Projects Ltd.”). Furthermore, in keeping with some of the panel’s decisions, which need not be mentioned at this point, the previously existing renown of the distinctive signs cause the burden of proof to fall on the holder of the domain, who, given that it would be impossible for the complainant to do so, is in a better position to prove his good faith, which he must do, and in so doing, his legitimate interests.”

The lack of existence of legitimate interest, as well as awareness of the “la Caixa” entity with a solid presence on the market that cannot be ignored by those who seek to register a domain name that contains the name of the complainant and the mark registered to the complainant, lead to the conclusion that the only reason that the LACAIXA.CN and LA-CAIXA.CN domain names were registered was to obtain economic gain by selling them to “la Caixa”.

Therefore, in accordance with the statements made up to this point, the respondent registered a domain name which is exactly the same as the trademarks registered by one of the most important banks in Spain and Europe, has not made commercial use of this domain, and has registered the domain with a contact address which appears to be false, probably in order to make it difficult to contact him.

VI. Remedies

13. In accordance with the CNNIC DRP, and based on the reasons stated above, it is requested that the expert panel decide to transfer the disputed domain names considered in this case to the complainant.

VII. Expert panel

14. The complainant chooses to have the case considered and decided by a single-member panel.

VIII. Other judicial proceedings

15. There are no judicial procedures pending related to the aforementioned domain name.


IX. Payment of fees

17. The fees required for these proceedings are RMB 6,000, which shall be paid by bank transfer (DOCUMENT 20)


X. Final confirmation

18. The Complainant confirms that the relevant complaint has been made in compliance with CNNIC DRP, CNNIC DRP Rules and the Supplemental Rules, as well other relevant laws and regulations. Moreover, to the best of its knowledge, the information provided in the complaint is complete and accurate. The complaint as well as the remedies claimed are made against the holder of the registered domain name, and shall not affect the domain name dispute resolution service provider nor the panelist in any way, nor shall they have any effect whatsoever on the domain name registry and registrar, the registration officer, and the domain name agency.

The Complainant:
CAIXA D’ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA “LA CAIXA”

Date: October 26th 2006

ANNEX

DOCUMENT 1: “la Caixa” 2005 Annual Report.

DOCUMENT 2: Copies of several newspaper articles regarding the LA CAIXA name, which appeared in well-known Spanish newspapers. A summary of newspaper articles prepared by the entity’s External Relations and Press Department on [January 20, 2005].

DOCUMENT 3: A search carried out on the http://www.google.com Web site which shows that when the term “la Caixa” is entered in the search engine, most of the results that appear refer to companies founded by the complainant.

DOCUMENT 4: A search carried out on the http://www.yahoo.com Web site which shows that when the term “la Caixa” is entered in the search engine, most of the results that appear refer to companies founded by the complainant.

DOCUMENT 5: A search carried out on the http://www.altavista.com Web site which shows that when the term “la Caixa” is entered in the search engine, most of the results which appear refer to companies founded by the complainant.

DOCUMENT 6: A search carried out in the CNNIC WHOIS database on September 22, 2006 in which catalanhost.com appears as holder of the LACAIXA.CN and LA-CAIXA.CN domain names.

DOCUMENT 7: A search carried out in the UWHOIS.COM database on September 20, 2006 in which CATALANHOST appears as holder of the CATALANHOST.COM domain name, with the same e-mail as in previous searches.

DOCUMENT 8: A copy of the CNNIC DRP applicable for the current domain name dispute.

DOCUMENT 9: A copy of the certificate issued by the Mexican Institute of Industrial Property, which accredits ownership of “la Caixa” in this country.

DOCUMENT 10: A copy of the certificate issued by the Trademark Office of the Principality of Andorra which demonstrates ownership of “la Caixa” in this country.

DOCUMENT 11: A copy of the certificate issued by the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office which demonstrates ownership of the composite distinctive sign under the “la Caixa” name.

DOCUMENT 12: A search carried in the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office database which demonstrates that the composite distinctive sign “la Caixa” has not expired.

DOCUMENT 13: A search carried out on the Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (OHIM) site related to the “LA CAIXA” European Community trademark.

DOCUMENT 14: A list of marks held by the Caixa d’Estalvis i Pensions de Barcelona (“la Caixa”) which contain the “LA CAIXA” name.

DOCUMENT 15: A copy of the document sent to the respondent claiming the LACAIXA.CN domain name.

DOCUMENT 16: A search carried out on the Internet about the respondent’s address in Vaduz (Lichtenstein).

DOCUMENT 17: first e-mail received written by the representative of the respondent.

DOCUMENT 18: second e-mail received written by the representative of the respondent in order to negotiate the transfer.

DOCUMENT 19: Third e-mail received written by the representative of the respondent in order to negotiate the transfer.

DOCUMENT 20: A copy of the receipt for the money transfer to HKIAC.

 

 


CATALANHOST RESPONSE:

A. Identity or confusing similarity to the trademark or service mark in which the complainant has rights

“La Caixa” is a catalan term which translates to “the box.” “The Box” is a generic term like the house or the car. CAIXA D.ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA has trademarked the term “lacaixa” in Mexico, Andorra and Spain and is known as CaixaBank or BancolaCaixa. The only country where the bank is commonly known as La Caixa is Spain. In fact on page 12 of the complaint, the Complainant itself states that the term La Caixa would be virtually unknown in China.

The trademarks held are limited to the area where they are given and the fact that the CAIXA D.ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA goes by the name CaixaBank in Andorra and France and Bancolacaixa in Mexico shows the fact that La Caixa is not an internationally business name. According to their complaint, no claim is made to any rights in China for the term “La Caixa”.

There have been multiple cases brought before WIPO that show that common terms cannot be completely controlled or owned. DeutschePost AG v NJDomains Case No D2006-0001; Wal-Mart Stores, Inc v Lynda’s Case No. D2003-0719; Gordon Sumner, p/k/a/ Sting v Michael Urvan Case No. D2000-0596; Sallie Mae Inc. v Michele Dinola Case No. D2004-0648 Goldline International v Gold Line Case No. D2000-1151and AXA China Region Limited v Kannet Limited Case No D2000-1377.

Panelist found in Sallie Mae Inc. v Michele Dinola Case No. D2004-0648 agreed with the findings in Etam, plc v Alberta Hot Rods that a complainant does not have exclusive rights to “to this fairly short, non fanciful name, [thus] Respondent may legitimately its own use of that name in an unrelated field.”

Furthermore the respondent does not offer services that could be confused with those of CAIXA D.ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA, nor is it attempting to trick the public in to mistaking it with the Claimant.

Finally, lacaixa.cn and la-caixa.cn were established before the CAIXA D.ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA had an interest or presence in the Chinese market.

B. Rights or legitimate interests in respect of the domain name

In June of the 2005 lacaixa.cn and la-caixa.cn were envisioned to establish an open information portal to lead to the wider dissemination and cooperation of international scientist and interested lay people. Our strategy is based on activating generic controls in different languages connected and linked strategically to form networks that attract visitors with academic interests and scientists of different sub-areas.

The idea of naming this entity La Caixa De Ciencies was born of a combined imagery of both a tool box and a medicine chest, as well as the mythological story of Pandora’s Box (La caixa de Pandora in catalan). Using the term “The box of” (the literal translation of La caixa) is a common usage and turn of phrase not connected to any specific business entity. The fact that this web portal concept was developed by an American and a Catalan led to the decision to use the catalan word as www.thebox.cn was already registered. Furthermore it was decided that theboxofsciences or lacaixadecienceis would be too cumbersome and easy to misspell to be used. Please see Attachment A for sample of other uses of “the box of” , or “la caixa.”
The Complainant’s contention that we do not offer bone fide services through lacaixa.cn and la-caixa.cn is a misunderstanding of the concept behind open web portals. The fact that they dismissively characterize our legitimate efforts at creating an effective web portal is unfortunate. Web Portals have a legitimate place on the World Wide Web and a long history. Many of the portals started initially web directories. We are modeling ourselves on portals such as those in India (Rediff), (MswPower.Com) China (Sina.com) Italy (Webplace.it) and so on. Such portals reach out to the widespread diaspora spread across the world. (See Attachment B for examples)
We have been working on the content of lacaixa.cn for a year, and it is a site under construction. We intend to improve day by day the information that we make available and we expect that our presence will continue growing until we can establish the necessary infrastructures to create more interactive content.
The immediate project offers part of those contents translated in Chinese tongue to facilitate the accesses to the visitors that arrive through http://lacaixa.cn.
Chinese network and the first connection of links is published then that relates the searches in http://Google.com and http://Google.cn under the concept "The Box of Sciences". (Attachment C)

The endeavors of lacaixa.cn are genuine. The website exists to help in our attempt to position ourselves in the Chinese market. Our website lacaixa.cn existed prior to the knowledge that CAIXA D.ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA intended to open a branch in China, as this bank has presence in European countries but would have been unknown to the Chinese market at the inception of Lacaixa.cn and la-caixa.cn.

C. Bad Faith

We made no attempt to contact CAIXA D.ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA during the period that we owned the domain. No attempts were made to sell our domain to them.

We feel that the characterization of our good faith efforts at a non-profit oriented, public edification web portal have been dismissed and denigrated by CAIXA D.ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA, who assumes to have control over all instances of the term “la caixa” worldwide. The trademarks they hold are clearly limited to those areas and CAIXA D.ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA did not have a known interest in the Chinese market when we began our site.
Complainant has asserted that we did an offer to sell the domain name and that this is evidence of bad faith. It is evident that we never contacted the complainant and it is not true that we did an offer to sell our domain. Moreover, as noted in Deutsche Welle v. DiamondWare Limited Case No. D 2000-1202, “The Panel does not interpret the Policy to mean that a mere offer for sale of a domain name for a large sum of money is, of itself, proof of cybersquatting. … Indeed, some of the largest sums of money paid for domain names have been for generic names”
Our responses to CAIXA D.ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA have been in line with the threatening and dismissive tone of their communications with us (Attachment D). We just ignored them. Simply because we are a small entity, CAIXA D.ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA feels it has the power to force us to bend to their will. This is an instance of attempted reverse domain hijacking. Reverse Domain Name Hijacking is defined in paragraph 1 of the Rules as meaning "using the Policy in bad faith to attempt to deprive a registered domain name holder of a domain name." (Attachment E)

Complainant has established bad faith by asserting that we do not offer bone fide services although our site has been active for over 1 year, just because the complainant does not see the value of our offerings, does not prove that they are not valid and useful to others. They also establish bad faith by attempting to force us to transfer the domain name to them through threatening letters. Furthermore the complainant has a vested financial interest in acquiring lacaixa.cn that it has not disclosed. Before the establishment of a presence of CAIXA D.ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA in China, CAIXA D.ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA took no issue with our use of the domain name. Transfer of the Domain Name to Complainant would effectively provide Complainant with all of Respondent’s web traffic, which is due to Respondent’s goodwill in the Domain Name lacaixa.cn and la-caixa.cn. At present we receive around 50,000 monthly visitors.

A widely regarded case of reverse domain hijacking occurred in 2000, when the Deutsche Welle attempted to acquire the domain dw.com from software company Diamond Ware. This attempt was reprimanded as reverse domain hijacking in 2001 by the WIPO in Case No. D 2000-1202 http://www.wipo.int/amc/en/domains/decisions/html/2000/d2000-1202.html

We were not willing to comply with the bullying of CAIXA D.ESTALVIS I PENSIONS DE BARCELONA, but gladly accepted the offer to go through the mediation process with the Hong Kong International Arbitration Center.

 

 





DECLARACIÓN UNIVERSAL DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS
(Aprobada por la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas el 10 de diciembre de 1948)


Artikel 19
Jeder hat das Recht auf Meinungsfreiheit und freie Meinungsäußerung; dieses Recht schließt die Freiheit ein, Meinungen ungehindert anzuhängen sowie über Medien jeder Art und ohne Rücksicht auf Grenzen Informationen
und Gedankengut zu suchen, zu empfangen und zu verbreiten.




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